The national anthem of India is 'Jana Gana Mana'. It is the begimimg five stanzas of a Brahmo hymn. It is composed by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.
On 27 December 1911, it was first sung at the Kolkatta Session of the Indian National Congress Party during 1919. The Anthem was composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore.
It was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly as the national anthem of India on 24 January 1950. The complete song consists of five stanzas, however, the first stanza contains the full version of the National Anthem.
Tagore received an invitation to spend few days, from his friend, an Irish poet James H. Cousins and principal of Besant Theosophical College, Madanapalle.
On the evening of February 28, 1919 he attended the students gathering and on Cousins's request, sang the Jana Gana Mana in Bengali.
The college authorities were highly impressed by the lofty ideals of the song and the praise to God and selected it as their prayer song.
Later, Shri. Ravindranath Tagore wrote the english version of the song and with the help of Ms. Margaret Cousins- a maestro in European music, composed the music, which is being followed till today.
The song was carried beyond the borders of India by the college students and became the Morning Song of India and subsequently the national anthem.
It takes about 50-60 seconds for a formal rendition of the national anthem, whereas a short version of the first and last lines takes about 20-25 seconds to play.
As on today, in Madanapalle in the library of Besant Theosophical College , the framed original English translation of Jana gana Mana, titled as The Morning Song of India in Tagore's handwriting, is displayed.
The Code of conduct
The National Anthem of India is played or sung on various occasions by government and public. As per the practise the people stand up in 'Attension pose' till the Anthem is over and then bow down and say - "Jai-Hind".
In this respect, Instructions have been issued from time to time from government authorities, about the occasions on which these are to be played or sung.
The correct versions of the Anthem and the need for paying respect to the anthem by observance of proper decorum on such occasions. However, for general information and guidance of people, the detail instructions are embodied in the information sheet issued by the government of India.
Janaganamana adhinayaka jaya he Bharatbhagyavidhata ll
Punjab Sindh Gujarat Maratha Dravida Ukala Vanga l
Vindhya Himachala Yamuna Ganga uchhala jaladhitaranga ll
Tava shubhs name jage l
Tava shubha ashish mage l
Gahe tava jaya gatha l
Janaganamangaldayak jaya he bharatbhagyavidhata l
Jaya he jaya he jaya he jaya jaya jaya jaya he ll
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people,
Dispenser of India's destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts ofPunjabSindhu,
Of the Dravida andOrissaand Bengal,
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas,
mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is
chanted by the waves of the Indian Ocean,
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise,
The saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India's destiny,
The Indian national flag symbolizes freedom. It is a horizontal rectangular and tricolour (Tiranga), consisting of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top,white in the middle and dark green at the bottom.The colours are in equal proportions. The ratio of the length to the width of the flag is three is to two. In the centre of the white band, there is a wheel in navy blue colour, called 'Ashok Chakra'.The diameter of the chakra is almost the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.
The colour, saffron stands for courage, sacrifice and the spirit of renunciation. The white,for purity and truth. The green for faith and fertility.'Ashok Chakra' is a Buddhist symbol dating back to 200th century BC.The 24 spokes symbolises that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.
The design of the National Flag of India was adopted by India's constituent assembly on 22nd july, 1947. The use of the national flag and it's display are regulated by a code. As per the Indian law there is a severe punishment for misusing or insulting the national flag in anyway.
The Flag Code of India
According to a Supreme Court judgement in 2004, every Indian has the right to fly the national flag freely with respect and dignity. In 2002, the code was merged with the Prevention of Insults to National Honour (Amendment) Act, 2005.
The Tricolour should always be hoisted in a place of power from sunrise to sunset. The hoisting of Indian Tricolour Flag is governed by a specific set of rules and regulations and failure to observe it can lead to imprisonment.
1- During flag hoisting, the saffron band must always be displayed as the topmost band on the right.
National flag shall not be used as decoration in any way.
2- The flag should not touch the ground or used as an advertisement or wrap.
The flag cannot be torn, damaged or burnt.
3- The Indian national flag shall be made of hand spun and hand woven wool/cotton/silk khadi bunting and its length to height (width) ratio shall be 3:2.
4- The flag shall not be used for commercial purposes in violation of the Emblem and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950. It should also not be used for personal purposes.
5- The flag shall not be used as a receptacle for receiving, delivering, holding or carrying anything.
6- There shall be no objection to keep flower petals inside the flag before it is unfurled, as part of celebrations on special occasions and on national days like the Republic Day and the Independence Day.
7- The flag shall not be intentionally allowed to touch the ground or the floor or trail in water.
8- Where the flag is displayed in open, it should, as far as possible, be flown from sunrise to sunset, irrespective of weather conditions.
Flag hoisting differences
1- On Independence day, the national flag is tied and placed at the bottom. The Prime Minister then raises it up and unfurls it.
This honours the historic event of Independence on August 15,1947. However, on Republic Day, the flag remains closed and tied up on the top, which is then unfurled at the top itself.
This marks that the country is already independent.
2- On Independence day the Prime Minister hoists the flag being, the head of government. However, on Republic Day, on January 26, the President unfurls the flag, being the first citizen of the country.
3- The Independence day is celebrated with the flag hoisting at the Red Fort in New Delhi. The Prime Minister addresses the nation from the ramparts of the Red Fort. However, the Republic Day is celebrated by unflurring the flag at Rajpath in New Delhi.