Monuments of India

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1 * Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is one of the world's most popular monuments and a symbol of India's architectural history and it's World Heritage Site.It is one of the universally most admired masterpieces.it was declared a winner of the New 7 Wonders of the World.

The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble monument, 243 ft.in height, situated on the southern bank of the river Yamuna, situated in the Indian city Agra, near Dehli. It was initiated in the year 1632 by Shah Jahan, the Mughal emperor, to place the tomb of his beloved wife, Mumtaz. The tomb includes a mosque and a guest house, surronded by trees and gardens.

The Taj Mahal project is said to be completed in the year 1653 and the estimated cost is almost 30 million rupees. The taj Mahal project was under the court architect,Ustad Ahmad Lahauri who had employed more than 20,000 artisans and a group of architects.Almost 8 million tourists from India and all over the world visit Taj Mahal every year.

2 * Ambar Fort

It is located on high hills in the town Amer,which has an area of about 4 square kilometres and is located 10 kilometres from Jaipur,in Rajasthan state of India.The town of Amer was basically constructed by Meenas, and later it was ruled by Raja Man Singh I (December 21, 1550 - July 6, 1614).The palace was the residence of the Rajput Maharajas and their families.

Amer Fort is famous for its artistic Hindu style elements, constructed in red sandstone and marble.It has multiple gates and cobbled paths and is constructed on four levels, each with a courtyard.

At the entrance to the palace there is a temple dedicated to Sila Devi, a goddess of the Chaitanya cult.The main source of water for the Amer palace is Maota lake.It consists of Diwan-e-Aam (public hall), Diwan-e-Khas (private hall), Sheesh Mahal ie mirror palace and the Sukh Niwas.

The Amer Fort is also popularly known as the Amer Palace since a cool climate is artificially created by winds which pass over a water cascade within the palace.

Amber palace is located on the Cheel ka Teela (Hill of Eagles) of the same Aravalli range of hills.Almost 2 millions tourists from all over visit Amber fort every day.

At the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, in 2013, Amer Fort, along with five other forts of Rajasthan, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the group Hill Forts of Rajasthan.

The Amer Fort is the principal tourist attractions in the Jaipur area and known for its artistic Hindu style elements. This palace is World Heritage Site and five forts are part of the group Hill Forts of Rajasthan.

3 * Golden Temple

The "Golden Temple" or Shri Harmandir Sahib (The abode of God),is located in the Amritsar city of Punjab, India.It is the holiest Gurdwara of Sikhism.The fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan, designed the Harmandir Sahib to be built in the centre of Amritsar,the holy tank and upon its construction, installed the Adi Granth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, inside the Harmandir Sahib.The Harmandir Sahib is regarded as the abode of God's spiritual attribute.

The concept of Harmandir Sahib was to provide a place of worship for all religions to worship the God equally.Hence Guru Arjan had invited Muslim Sufi saint, Hazrat Mian Mir to lay the foundation stone of the Harmandir Sahib.

The four entrances on four directions is suggestive of welcome to all worshipper from all over.

Golden Temple is visited by almost 30 millions tourists visit the holy shrine evry year for worship and also jointly participate in Langar (meal). Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the upper floors of the gurdwara with gold n the early nineteenth century, which gives the look of Golden Temple.

4 * Swaminarayan Akshardham

Akshardham Swaminarayan temple complex,located near the banks of the Yamuna in Delhi, is one of the largest temple complexes in India with large landscaped gardens,a musical fountain and a Yogi Hriday Kamal(lotus).

The temple, in the centre of the complex, was built according to the Vastu shastra and Pancharatra shastra. The Akshardham Mandir is the major attraction of thi complex having height of almost 140 ft,316 ft wide and 356 long.

It is completely constructed with Rajasthani pink sandstone and Italian Carrara marble and designed as per the standards of Maharishi Vastu Architecture.It has no support from steel or concrete material. It is skillfully carved with dancers,musicians and Indian deities.

The temple has 234 carved pillars, 9 domes, and 20,000 murtis of devotees, sadhus and acharyas and contains 148 life sized elephants in total weighing a total of 3000 tons.

The temple is surrounded by Narayan Sarovar, which contains holy waters from 151 rivers and lakes that are believed to have been sanctified by Swaminarayan, including Mansarovar. Surrounding the Narayan Sarovar are 108 gaumukhs, symbolising 108 names of god.

The temple contains murtis of Radha Krishna, Sita Ram, Shiv Parvati, and Lakshmi Narayan. However the temple is dedicated to the 11 ft idol of Shri. Swaminarayan seated in abhayamudra under the central dome.Swaminarayan is surrounded by images of the faith's lineage of Gurus seen in a devotional or service posture. The temple was inaugurated by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam on 6 November 2005.

5 * Mehrangarh Fort

Situated in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan and built in around year 1460 by Rao Jodha, the Mehrangarh Fort is one of the largest forts in India. It has seven tall gates and the museum therein is one of the most well-stocked museums in Rajasthan, which exhibits the heritage of the Rathores in arms, costumes and paintings.In one section of the fort museum there is the elaborate domed gilt Mahadol palanquin which was won in a battle of 1730, from the Governor of Gujarat.

The Mehrangarh fort is situated 400 ft above the city and nside its premises there are various palaces known for skillful carvings.On the second gate of the fort, one can see cannonball hits by attacking armies of Jaipur. On the left side of the fort is the chhatri of Kirat Singh Soda, a soldier who fell on the spot defending the Mehrangarh fort.

There are seven gates to enter this fort-

Fateh Pol, in celebration of victory over the Mughals in the year 1707.Jai Pol, also known as "The Gate of Victory", made by Maharaja Man Singh in 1806 in celebration of the victory in a war of Jaipur and Bikaner.

Dedh Kamgra Pol,still shows the marks of cannonballs hits.Loha Pol, is the last gate into the main part of the complex.On the left side, one can see the handprints (sati marks) of the ranis who in 1843 immolated themselves on the funeral pyre of their husband, Maharaja Man Singh.

There are various other attractive places in the fort, such as - Moti Mahal, Phool Mahal, Sheesha Mahal, Sileh Khana and Daulat Khana. The museum is a collection of musical instruments, palanquins, furniture, howdahs, royal cradles and miniatures.

6 * Qutab Minar

The Qutub Minar is surrounded by many significant historical monuments and is known as the Iron Pillar of Delhi.It is made of red sandstone and marble, Qutb Minar is 239 ft. tall tapering tower with a diameter measuring 47 ft. at the base and 9 ft. at the peak.

The minar tilts just over 65 cm from the vertical, which is considered to be within safe limits,379 steps in a circular staircase lead to the tower peak.The surronding significant places are - Alai Minar, Alai Darwaza, Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque, Tomb of Iltutmish, Ala-ud-din's Madrasa and Tomb of Imam Zamin. At the foot of the tower is the Quwwat ul Islam Mosque. Qutub Minar is the second highest minar in India.

Qutub Minar is situated in the Mehrauli area of Delhi, India. It is inspired from the Minaret of Jam,in western Afghanistan, which was built by the Ghori (Mamluk) Dynasty.

Qutb al-Din Aibak, is the founder of the Delhi Sultanate, who started erection of the Minar,in 1200 AD. Later,Aibak's son-in-law Iltutmish added three floors to the tower in 1220.However the top floor was damaged by lighting in 1369,which was restored by Firoz Shah Tughlaq.The work was done with red sandstone and white marble. Qutb Minar station is the closest station on the Delhi Metro.

7 * Agra Fort

Agra Fort is a UNESCO World Heritage site and is about 2.5 km northwest to Taj Mahal.The fort was originally built by Lodi.However the Mughal tried to get rid of Lodi history out of jealousy andThey renewed it to show their claim. The grave of Lodi is made of the same stone as that of Agra Fort.

Originally Agra Fort was known by the name Badalgarh,ruled by Raja Badal Singh Hindu Sikarwar Rajput king (c.?1475).Sikandar Lodi was the first Sultan of Delhi who shifted to Agra and lived in this fort (1488-1517). He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital.

The fort was the a battle site during the Indian rebellion of 1857, which led to the end of the British East India Company's rule in India. In the early 18th century the fort was attacked and captured by the Marathas.

However after the tragic defeat in Third war of Panipat by Ahmad Shah Abdali, Marathas remained out of the region for the next decade (1761). Finally Mahadji Shinde took the fort in 1785, which was later lost to the British in 1803 by the Marathas during the Second War with British.

8 * Khajuraho Temples

Khajuraho is famous for deriving spiritual peace through eroticism.It is ornate temples are very attractive, artistic and a great architectural work. Khajuraho temples were built by the king Chandella between AD 900 and 1130.

The temples are spread over an area of about 9 square miles. Khajuraho Group of Monuments is the most popular tourist attraction and archaeological site in Madhya Pradesh, known for its sculptured temples dedicated to Shiva. Khajuraho Temples were constructed by many Chandella rulers and it was a tradition of Chandella rulers to construct atleast one temple.

As per the records, the first Khajuraho temples were constructed in AD 1022. Khajuraho Temples were destructed by muslim invaders, after the defeat of Chandella dynasty,later to AD 1150,local people were forced to leave Khajuraho.

Hence Khajuraho temples were away from popularity from about 13th century to 18th century,till it was re-discovered by British engineer T. S. Burt. As per the local traditional record, 25 temples are surviving out of 85 temples in Khajuraho.

9 * Brihadeeshwara Temple

Brihadeeswarar Temple is located at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu state of India,which is a Hindu temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva.It stands in middle of fortified walls added probably in sixteenth century.It is also known as Peruvudaiyar Kovil, Rajarajeswaram and RajaRajeshwara Temple.

It is built by Raja Raja Chola-I in 1010 AD in Thanjavur, Brihadeeswarar Temple is also popular by name of "Big Temple". It is a part of UNESCO World Heritage Site as "Great Living Chola Temples". Brihadeeswarar Temple temple is India's one of the largest and a great example of Indian precious Architecture.It is the most visited tourist attraction in Thanjavur.Entire structure of temple is made of granite.

There is one temple tower,called as Vimana,which is 216 ft.tall. The apex structure on top of temple,Kumbam, Chikharam or Kalasha, which is bulbous are believed to be single stone carving.

At the entrance of this temple there is one statue of a "Nandi", a divine bull, which measures about 13 ft. tall and 16 ft. long, and made out of a single rock carving. Every year tourists from all over the world visit this temple.

10 * India Gate

The India Gate, the pride of Delhi, is also known as "All India War Memorial" which is built in the memory of the 80000 Indian soldiers who sacrificed their lives in the World War-I.The foundation stone of India Gate was laid by His Royal Highness, the Duke of Connaught in 1921,which was designed by Edwin Lutyens.

The monument was dedicated to the nation 10 years later by the then Viceroy, Lord Irwin. Surrounding India Gate is a large expanse of green lawns, which is a popular picnic spot. The eternal flame burns day and night under the arch, in remembrance of the soldiers who sacrified their lives in the Pakistan War of 1971.

India Gate stands at one end of Rajpath. It is a 42 ft. tall structure which stands in the centre of New Delhi.The entire arch is erected on a low base of red Bharatpur stone and rises in stages to a huge moulding.It mentions the names of more than 12000 British and Indian soldiers who were killed in the 1919 Afghan war.

The domed bowl at the top iss made to be filled with burning oil on anniversaries.The cornice is inscribed with the Imperial suns while both sides of the arch have INDIA, flanked by the dates MCMXIV (1914 left) and MCMXIX (1919 right). India Gate is decorated with lights during the night time and colourful fountains around , which make a lovely display of the monument.

11 * Konark Sun Temple

An Konark houses a massive temple dedicated to the Sun God. The word 'Konark' is a combination of two words 'Kona' and 'Arka'. 'Kona' means 'Corner' and 'Arka' means 'Sun', so when combines it becomes 'Sun of the Corner'. Konark Sun Temple is situated on the north eastern corner of Puri and is dedicated to Sun God.

Konark is also known as Arka khetra. There are three images of the Sun God at three different sides of the temple, positioned in proper direction to catch the rays of the sun at morning, noon and evening.

Konark sun temple was built in the middle of 13th century,and it is an example of great conception of art, architecture and engineering.It is an rchitectural wonder of Eastern India.Konark Sun Temple is situated in the eastern state of Orissa, India and is one of the popular monuments.

It was designed in the form of a gorgeous chariot of 24 wheels, each about 10 ft. in diameter with 7 mighty horses. It was built by the great King Narasimhadeva-I, of the Ganga dynasty, by employing 1200 artisans within a period of 12 years (1243-1255 A.D.).

The temple was known as a chariot for the Sun God since the ruler used to worship the Sun. The monument was termed as Black Pagoda by European sailors.Konark Sun Temple is in the list of Seven Wonders of India. The great poet Rabindranath Tagore mentioned Konark temple as - "here the language of stone surpasses the language of man."

12 * Charminar

Charminar,the most famous monument and mosque, which is the pride of Hyderabad(India) was constructed in 1591 by Mohammed Quli Qutab Shah.Charminar catia style of architecture is a monument built with granite and lime mortar.

It was developed to stop plague in the town.After the construction of Charminar, the Hyderabad virtually became landmark of historical site. Surrounding area of Charminar has a grand mosque called the Makkah Masjid, a beautiful temple known as Bhagyalakshmi Temple and Laad Baazar known for jewellery.

The Charminar is a huge and remarkable construction with four minarets.It is a four story structure.It is believed that there exists an underground tunnel that links the charminar to Golconda Fort,the former capital of Quli Qutb Shah,which provides a getaway route to the royal family during emergencies.

Charminar structure is an ideal square where each one of the side measures 60 ft. along with the two sides are linked with a tall minaret.The industry 4 storey building has a height of 75 ft.There are 149 flights of stairs to climb to the top floor.

Each arc was established in 1889,The stone balcony acts like a roof over the two galleries.The main gallery in the Minar has 45 covered prayer spaces.The intricate carvings and moldings is a woderful job.Charminar looks more attractive in the nights after the clourful lights fall on it. It is a biggest attraction of Hyderabad.

13 * Red Fort

The Red Fort is in the northern side of Dehli, India,lying on the banks of Yamuna River.It is in octagonal shape,spreading over more than 250 acres of land and it took almost nine years to complete the construction of the fort from (1639-1648).

The wall on north-eastern side is bordered by the Salimgarh Fort, built in 1546.The fort was made up of large sand stone of red color which gave it the name Red Fort. Red Fort was used as the residence by the Mughal ruler which was capital of Mughal rulers till the regime of Bahadur Shah Zafar.

The high boundary walls were meant to provide maximum security to the royals. UNESCO included the Red Fort in the list of World Heritage Site in the year 2007. The fort was residence to the royal family, hence it was also known as "Qila-e- Mubarak",the Blessed Fort. Red Fort reflects the time of Mughal Rule and Mughal architecture during the era of Shah Jahan. Red Fort further went under changes to its construction as were witnessed after the Independence of India.

British used the Fort as Army Cantonment and India after independence used it for the Army till early years of the 21st century.The Red Fort has two main gates,-the Delhi gate and the Lahore gate.

The Lahore gate got its name because of its orientation towards Lahore.We Indians not only appreciate the majesty of this vast architectural wonder, but it draws interest from across the world. On every Independence Day, Indian Prime Minister delivers a speech to people of the nation and hoists the national flag at the Red Fort. This tradition is beling followed since 15 th August 1947,the first Independence Day of India.

14 * Lake Palace

Lake Palace is situated on the Jag Niwas island in Lake Pichola, Udaipur, India.its natural foundation spans 4 acres of land.The Lake Palace was built between 1743 and 1746 under the direction of the Maharana Jagat Singh-II.The palace was constructed facing east, allowing its inhabitants to pray to Surya, the Hindu sun god, at the crack of dawn.

The palace was a royal summer palace with pillared terraces, fountains and gardens. Lake Palace is a luxurious hotel with 83 rooms andg white marble walls. The hotel provides a speed boat for transportation.The upper room is a perfect circle and is about 20 ft. in diameter.

Lily Pond at Lake Palace, Udaipur Bhagwat Singh decided to convert the Jag Niwas Palace into Udaipur's first luxury hotel. Didi Contractor, an American artist, became a design consultant to this hotel project. Didi's accounts gives an insight to the life and responsibility of the new Maharana of Udaipur:

Taj Hotels Resorts took over management of the hotel and added another 75 rooms in 1971 and in year 2000, a second restoration was undertaken.The "Royal Butlers" in the hotel are descendants of the original palace retainers.It is believed to be one of the most romantic hotels in India and in the world.

15 * Mysore Palace

The Amba Vilas Palace is a most popular historical palace in the city of Mysore.The Maharajas of Mysore were devotees of Goddess Chamundi,that is why the place faces Chamundi Hills.

The palace is the third or the fourth generation of the palatial structure built over this location by the ruling dynasty.It was made in as early as 1574 CE. Originally this area was a bastion and fortified area with ditches all around as in any military architecture.

Fort walls, and some remains of the ditches on either sides are seen on the eastern side of the palace compound. The palace houses two darbar halls and incorporates most attractive array of courtyards, gardens, and buildings. The palace is in the central region of inner Mysore and it faces the Chamundi Hills on eastern side.

It is a three-story masonary structure with marble domes and a 140 ft five-story tower, surrounded by a large garden.The architectural style of domes is a blend of Hindu, Muslim, Rajput andGothic styles.

The entrance gate and arch hold the emblem of the kingdom of Mysore and bove the central arch is a sculpture of Gajalakshmi, the goddess of wealth, prosperity, good luck and abundance with her elephants.

The palace has three entrances - the East Gate, the South Entrance for tourists, and the West Entrance opened during festivals.There are also secret tunnels from the palace leading to confidential areas.

Within the Old Fort there exist three major exclusive temple buildings and almost 18 within the palace building.Mysore Palace is today one of the most famous tourist attractions in India, after the Taj Mahal, and has more than 5 million visitors every year.

16 * Humayun's Tomb

Humayun's Tomb was built in the 1560's, with the patronage of Humayun's son, the great Emperor Akbar.It was designed by Mirak Mirza Ghiyas, a Persian architect chosen by Bega Begum. It was also the first structure to use red sandstone.

The site was opted on the banks of Yamuna river since it was close to Nizamuddin Dargah, the mausoleum of the celebrated Sufi saint of Delhi, Nizamuddin Auliya, who was much revered by the rulers of Delhi. Humayun's garden-tomb is also called the 'dormitory of the Mughals' since almost 150 Mughal family members are buried in cells.

Humayun's tomb was the first garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent and one of the best mughal garden in India.There are several monuments in the Humayun's Tomb complex such as Tomb,Garden and mosque, Nila Gumbad, Isa Khan, Bu Halima, Afsarwala and Barber's Tomb.

The mausoleum is situated on a high, wide terraced platform with two bay deep vaulted cells on all four sides.The interior is a large octagonal chamber with vaulted roof compartments interconnected by galleries or corridors. It is surmounted by a 42 mtrs. high double dome clad with marble flanked by pillared kiosks and the domes of the central chhatris are adorned with glazed ceramic tiles.

The main tomb took eight years for construction which was placed in centre of a 30 acres land Char Bagh (Four Gardens).Char baug was a Persian-style garden with quadrilateral layout.

The garden is divided into four squares by paved walkways and two bisecting central water channels.Each of the four square is further divided into smaller squares with pathways, creating into 36 squares in all.

The central water channels disappear below the tomb and reappear on the other side in a straight line which suggest the Quranic verse talking of rivers flowing beneath the 'Garden of Paradise'. The tomb was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1993.

17 * Mahabodhi Temple

The Mahabodhi Temple located in Bodhgaya in Gaya,located about 96 km (60 mi) from Patna, Bihar state, India, is one of the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Gautam Buddha.The temple complex has holy Bodhi tree,monastery and Bodhimanda Vihara,the tallest temple tower.

The Mahabodhi Temple is one of the ancient Buddhist temples built in brick masonary which still exists today. The ground level of the temple is 44 mtrs. square, tapering up in a pyramid shape. The central tower of Mahabodhi stands 180 ft. tall.The outside brickwork of the temple depicts life of Gautam Buddha.

The first Buddhist ruler of India,Emperor Ashoka (3rd century BC), marked this place with his trademark inscribed pillars, with an elephant capital. A stone rail was erected around the perimeter in the 1st century AD, part of which still remains.

The shrine was replaced by the present Mahabodhi Temple in the 2nd century. Inside the temple is a colossal statue of a seated Buddha of black stone which covered in gold and dressed in bright orange robes.

Immediately next to the Mahabodhi Temple is the Bodhi Tree, a descendent of the very tree under which the Buddha was enlightened, and the Jewel Walk, marking the place where the Buddha is said to have practiced walking meditation for seven days after his enlightenment. In 2002, UNESCO declared the Mahabodhi Temple a World Heritage Site and recommended

18 * Meenakshi Amman Temple

Meenakshi is a form of the Hindu goddess Parvati,the consort of Lord Shiva who is one of the few Hindu godesses to have a main temple devoted to her.The goddess Meenakshi is the principal deity of the temple, Meenakshi Amman Temple is a historic Hindu temple situated on the bank of the Vaigai River in Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India and it is dedicated to Mata Parvati, known as Meenakshi.

The Sultanate Muslim Commander Malik Kafur attacked and looted the temple of its valuables in 14th century. It was thenrebuilt by the Nayak ruler Vishwanatha Nayakar somewhere in 16th century.It houses 14 gateway towers almost 50 mtrs. tall.

The tallest is the southern tower wehich is 52 metres tall and two vimans in gold sculpture. The temple,Meenakshi Amman Temple is a significant symbol for the Tamil people and is the most prominent landmark which attracts 15,000 visitors a day. The Meenakshi temple is one of the largest temple complexes in Tamil Nadu.

19 * Tirumala Venkateswara Temple

Tirumala Venkateswara Temple is situated in the hill town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, India which is a landmark Vaishnavite temple.The Temple is dedicated to Lord Venkateswara who is an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.Lord Venkateswara is believed to have appeared here to save mankind from problems of Kali Yuga.

The temple is one of the eight Vishnu Swayambhu Kshetras and is recorded as 106 th and the final earthly Divya Desam.The Tirumala Venkateswara is constructed in Dravidian architecture.The presiding deity, Venkateswara, is in standing posture which faces east in Garbha griha.The temple follows Vaikhanasa Agama tradition of worship.

The temple is also referred to as "Temple of Seven Hills" since the temple lies on the seventh peak - Venkatadri, on the southern banks of Shri Swami Pushkarini, a holy water tank.

It is the richest temple in the world in terms of donations received and wealth.The temple is visited by almost 75000 pilgrims every day. It is around 435 kms from Vijayawada, 570 kms from Hyderabad, 135 kms from Chennai.

As per a legend , the temple has a idol of Lord Venkateswara, which is believed to remain for the complete duration of the Kali Yuga. Tirumala Venkateswara Temple is one of the richest and visited temples of India.

20 * Hawa Mahal

Hawa Mahal,the renowned 'Palace Of The Winds' is one of the most popular tourist attractions located in the heart of Jaipur city,India. Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh who belonged to Kachhwaha Rajput dynasty constructed this unique palace in 1799, built in red and pink sandstone.

The motive behind the concept of Hawa Mahal was to facilitate the royal women to have a view of society through the windows, cause they never could never appear in public. The architect of this palace is Lal Chand Ustad who constructed the palace in the form of the crown of Shri.

Krishna.The main attraction of Hawa Mahal is its pyramid shape with 953 windows, known as 'Jharokhas',decorated with artistic designs, which enable free ventilation within the premises. Hawa Mahal having height of 50 ft has an entrance which leads to a spacious courtyard surrounded by two-storey buildings on three sides.

Of the five storeys of the Mahal, the top three storeys have the thickness of a single room while the bottom storeys have courtyards.The Mahal does not have stairs, however the storeys have ramps. Jantar Mantar, Govind Devji temple, Amer Fort, Nahargarh Fort, Ram Niwas Bagh, BM Birla Planetarium, Jain Temple, Statue Circle, Sisodia Rani Garden etc are the attractions in the viscinity of Mahal. Hawa Mahal is visited by millions of tourists every year.

21 * Jama Masjid

Jama Masjid is one of the most famous Landmarks of Delhi which is the largest and most popular mosques in India.Constructed by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan between 1644 & 1656, was constructed by more than 5000 workers and was inaugurated by an imam from Bukhara, present-day Uzbekistan.

The architectural plan of Badshahi Masjid, built by Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's son at Lahore, Pakistan, matches the Jama Masjid. The mosque has three huge gates constructed of strips of red sandstone and white marble.

The construction was complete in 1656 AD with three gates, four towers and two 40 mtrs tall minarets, made of strips of red sandstone and white marble. The courtyard has capacity of more than 20,000 persons.

The floor is madev of white and black ornamented marble which gives a look of Muslim prayer mat.Also in addition, an area admeasuring 3 ft. x 1.5 ft. is marked in thin black border for the worshippers.There are three domes on the terrace which are surrounded by the two minarets.899 Black borders are marked for worshippers on the floor.

22 * Victoria Memorial Hall

The Victoria Memorial is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria which is a large marble building with gardens,royal gallery and dome.It is a museum now which is a tourist attractions of Kolkata city.

On the death of Queen Victoria in January 1901, George Curzon and Viceroy of India, suggested the memorial. He suggested the building of a grand structure with a museum with gardens. The foundation stone was laid by the Prince of Wales on 4 January 1906 and it was formally opened to the public in 1921.

23 * Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus

The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly well known as VT - Victoria Terminus Station, in Mumbai, on the Western Part of India, which touching the shores of the Arabian Sea,is an example of Victorian Gothic Revival architecture, in fusion with themes of Indian traditional architecture, which was designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, is spread across a 2.85 hectare area.It took over 10 years for it's building, from the year 1878.

It became the symbol of Bombay as the 'Gothic City' and the major international mercantile port of India.It resembles the traditional Indian palace architecture due to its stone dome, pointed arches, turrets etc.

The Terminus is an historic railway station situated in Mumbai, India and its' World Heritage Site. It is one of the busiest railway stations in India, known as now known in short as CST.This is one of the finest functional Railway Stations of the world and is used by more than two million commuters every day.

24 * Gateway of India

Gateway of India monument is referred to as the Taj Mahal of Mumbai and one of the city's top tourist attraction. The Gateway of India is a major tourist destination and a popular gathering spot for locals, street vendors and photographers.

The Gateway of India, which was constructed in 1924 is pride of India and the most unique landmarks of Mumbai.It is situated at the end of Apollo Bunder which overlooks the Mumbai harbor along the Arabian Sea in the Colaba. The Gateway of India is a major tourist attraction for visitors who visit India. At one point of time, this monument represented the grandeur of the British Raj in India.

The major event of passing of the 'First Battalion of the Somerset Light Infantry' took place at this site.which was conducted on February 28, 1948 and the last set of British troops and divisions left India after the independence.This has become a favourite spot for tourists, couples, vendors, food stalls and photographers.